Linux Troubleshooting Make Easy.

Linux Learning & Troubleshooting Make Easy.

Linux Boot Sequence

The following are the 6 stages of a typical Linux boot process.




1. BIOS
    BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System
    Performs some system integrity checks
    Searches, loads, and executes the boot loader program.

2. MBR
    MBR stands for Master Boot Record.
    It is located in the 1st sector of the bootable disk.
    It contains information about GRUB or LILO.

3. GRUB
    GRUB stands for Grand Unified Bootloader.
    GRUB has the knowledge of the filesystem.
    GRUB just loads and executes Kernel and initrd images.

4. Kernel
    Mounts the root file system as specified in the “root=” in grub.conf
    Kernel executes the /sbin/init program

5. INIT
    INIT Looks at the /etc/inittab file to decide the Linux run level.
    Following are the available run levels
        0 – halt
        1 – Single user mode
        2 – Multiuser, without NFS
        3 – Full multiuser mode
        4 – unused
        5 – X11
        6 – reboot
    INIT identifies the default initlevel from /etc/inittab and uses that to load all appropriate program.

6. RunLevel Programs
    Depending on default init level setting, the system will execute one programs from the /etc/rc.d directory.
    There are numbers right next to S and K in the program names.
    Those are the sequence number in which the programs should be started or killed.





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